Minimum tillage ppt

Aug 01, 2014 · Soil Cultivation and Tillage. What is Tillage?. The practice of keeping the soil mellow (soft) and free from weeds mechanically (physically). Can be seedbed preparation or post emergence cultivation. What are the purposes of tillage?. 1) Develop soil tilth (physical condition of the soil) Land preparation covers a wide range of practices from zero-tillage or minimum tillage which minimizes soil disturbance through to a totally 'puddled' soil which actually destroys soil structure. It typically involves (1) plowing to "till" or dig-up, mix, and overturn the soil; (2) harrowing to break the soil clods into smaller mass and ...Aug 01, 2014 · Soil Cultivation and Tillage. What is Tillage?. The practice of keeping the soil mellow (soft) and free from weeds mechanically (physically). Can be seedbed preparation or post emergence cultivation. What are the purposes of tillage?. 1) Develop soil tilth (physical condition of the soil) Reduced or minimum tillage means less movement over the soil which results in less compaction of the soil. Deep Subsoiling should precede reduced or minimum till operations. No till reduces the formation of traffic pans because planting is done directly in the stubble of the previous crop. Biological Properties of Soil refers to the living ...Minimum Tillage Minimum tillage involves considerable soil disturbance, though to a much lesser extent than that associated with conventional tillage. Some crop residue is left on the soil surface. Minimum tillage is also called reduced tillage. It is non-specific in terms of soil disturbance and hence not a very meaningful term.Minimum tillage, no-tillage and ridge-tillage tend to reduce the loss of earthworm biomass living on the soil surface, in part because these less invasive soil mixing practices incorporate dead mulch and/or crop residues 10-15 cm below the surface of the topsoil, or allow it to stay on the soil surface, much like the litter found in woodlands ...strip tillage combines the benefits of no-till and full-width tillage, but tillage is confined to 6- to 8-inch strips into which dry fertilizer and/or anhydrous ammonia can be placed. Loosened soil in the strips creates a ridge or berm 3 to 4 inches high, which set-tles down to 1 to 2 inches by spring planting. Crop residue in rowNov 18, 2011 · 1. Zero tillage : A profitable resource saving technology in Indian and Global context Speaker : Sunil Kumar (A-2010-30-21) 2. INTRODUCTION. 3. Issues Conventional tillage Zero tillage Erosion Maximum Less Soil physical health Increase compaction due to Reduced compaction due to heavy traffic, formation of reduced traffic. compaction plough pan. The minimum temperature for growth is 15oC. The sorghum plants seems to withstand extreme heat better ... thorough tillage of medium heavy soils. ... (severe thickening and hardening of artery walls). | PowerPoint PPT presentation | free to view . Overview on Export Market Opportunities for Sorghum - Title: Overview on Export Market ...Aug 01, 2014 · Soil Cultivation and Tillage. What is Tillage?. The practice of keeping the soil mellow (soft) and free from weeds mechanically (physically). Can be seedbed preparation or post emergence cultivation. What are the purposes of tillage?. 1) Develop soil tilth (physical condition of the soil) 1. Modern Concepts of Zero Tillage. 2. Contents. 3. What is Zero Tillage • Placement of seed in to soil without soil preparation • It is an extreme form of minimum tillage. Primary tillage is completely avoided & secondary tillage is restricted to seedbed preparation in the row zone only • it is the direct sowing of seed in the field ...makes (minimum tillage) 3) keep off soil when it is wet Compaction can be reversed by special deep tillage methods, Crusting can be reduced by: light cultivation adding gypsum (CaS04) mulches . ... PowerPoint Presentation Author: SCAS Created Date: 11/16/2004 3:43:50 PM ...Tillage is the agricultural preparation of soil by mechanical agitation of ... (PPT--available as non-PPT by searching the path through a ... R.L., H.F. McColly, L.S. Robertson, and C.M. Hansen. 1958. Save Money - Water - Soil with Minimum Tillage. Extension Bulletin 352. Cooperative Extension Service, Michigan State University, East Lansing. ...Minimum soil disturbance Zero tillage is ideal, but the system may involve controlled tillage in which no more than 20 to 25% of the soil surface is disturbed. 2. Retention of crop residues or other soil surface cover Many definitions of CA use 30% permanent organic soil cover as the minimum, but the ideal level of soil cover is site-specific. 3.Minimum Tillage Minimum tillage involves considerable soil disturbance, though to a much lesser extent than that associated with conventional tillage. Some crop residue is left on the soil surface. Minimum tillage is also called reduced tillage. It is non-specific in terms of soil disturbance and hence not a very meaningful term.PNW dryland agro-climatic zones with 8" to 22" av. ppt/yr. ABSTRACT OF RESEARCH FINDINGS: ... of the results of a 1986-91 conservation farming systems experiment in the eastern Palouse showed that some minimum tillage wheat-barley-pea systems decreased in profitability relative to results with 1986-91 prices. On the other hand, some winter ...minimum tillage it is aimed at reducing tillage to the minimum necessary forensuring a good seed bed, rapid germination, a satisfactorycrop stand and favourable growing condition. tillage can reduced in two ways by omitting operation whichdo not give much benefit when compared to the cost & bycombining agricultural operations like seeding & …Based on mass. Follow core databases. Critical effect for representing tillage and other soil disturbing operations. Burial and resurfacing ratio values function of implement and type of residue. These ratios based on mass. Tillage intensity represents how much of the existing roughness at time of disturbance influences roughness after the ...Jul 25, 2014 · Mulch-Till Mulch-till is any other reduced tillage system that leaves at least one third of the soil surface covered with crop residue. Conventional Tillage Leaves less than 15% crop residue cover by completely inverting the top 12” of soil. Includes moldboard plowing, 2-3 secondary tillage steps and one or more primary tillage steps. Types of Tillage Minimum Tillage - It is the minimum soil manipulation necessary to meet tillage requirements for crop production. Strip Tillage - It is a tillage system in which only isolated bands of soil are tilled. Rotary Tillage -It is the tillage operations employing rotary action to cut, break and mix the soil. - Minimum movement of soil to check on the spread of pests and diseases • In addition, the soil should be ploughed to a minimum depth of 30 cm and inverted; it is vital to break the hard pan, thus ensuring proper root establishment; and the recycling of nutrients that tend to get leached. • Also, minimum tillage could be an option to conserveTillage PowerPoint PPT Presentations ... Nutrient Management in Reduced Tillage Systems - Discuss how minimum tillage (MT), no-tillage (NT), and conventional tillage ... Making use of minimum tillage expenditures Making use of Family/or mutually shared labour as and when required, for different cultural operations ... PowerPoint Presentation Author: SAS Center Last modified by: takatsuki Created Date: 7/30/2001 2:35:00 AM Document presentation format:Land preparation covers a wide range of practices from zero-tillage or minimum tillage which minimizes soil disturbance through to a totally 'puddled' soil which actually destroys soil structure. It typically involves (1) plowing to "till" or dig-up, mix, and overturn the soil; (2) harrowing to break the soil clods into smaller mass and ...Grow high yield, high biomass crops and pastures, and in continuous cropping systems maximise crop frequency to increase organic matter returns to the soil. Maintain soil fertility with inorganic and organic fertilisers to maximise production. If available locally, import manure/compost or other organic amendments.3.5 Minimum Tillage 3.6 Natural Corridors 3.7 Ground cover/cover crops 3.8 Integration of livestock 4. Useful resources & case studies 2. 3 1. An introduction to regenerative almond production his section is designed to help farmers implement regenerative practices on an almond orchard. It will explore the practical planning, design andThe purpose and ideal uses for tillage implements. Tillage is the mechanical manipulation of the soil with the purpose of: Managing crop residue. Incorporating amendments. Preparing a seedbed. Controlling weeds. Removing surface compaction and rutting. On this page: Popular implements; Common tillage depths; Number of passes needed to prepare a ... PENGOLAHAN TANAH MINIMUM (MINIMUM TILLAGE) Lembar Informasi Pertanian (LIPTAN) BIP Irian Jaya No. 145/94 Diterbitkan oleh: Balai Informasi Pertanian Irian Jaya Jl. Yahim - Sentani - Jayapura September 1994 Agdex:511/20 Pengolahan tanah intensif memerlukan biaya yang tinggi, disamping mempercepat kerusakan sumber daya tanah.Minimum tillage or direct seeding without any plowing as well as mechanization of harvesting in fruit trees or grapes can also change the spectrum of diseases for which the growers need to find control measures. Such changes in crop varieties and in production methods keep the disease picture very dynamic so that new methods for disease control ...Objectives of Minimum Tillage: The feasibility and success of minimum tillage practices depend on the following two main objectives: 1. The first objective is to provide a proper environment for the seed to germinate, and germinated seedlings. It is basically done by performing tillage activities around the seeds or adjacent to the crop row areas.What is minimum tillage? • delay primary tillage until seeding What are the benefits of minimum tillage? 1) soil surface is left covered residue (conserve moisture) 2) redidue protects soil from erosion 3) reduced costs (fewer operations) 4) soil tilth improved (less compaction) • -Weeds are controlled with chemicalsReduced or minimum tillage means less movement over the soil which results in less compaction of the soil. Deep Subsoiling should precede reduced or minimum till operations. No till reduces the formation of traffic pans because planting is done directly in the stubble of the previous crop. Biological Properties of Soil refers to the living ...minimum of 2000 pounds per acre or 60 percent surface residue cover shall be maintained throughout the year. Trapping Snow. Any fall tillage operation shall leave the crop stubble in an upright position. Crop stubble height during the time significant snowfall is expected to occur shall be: At least 10 inches for crops with a rowMinimum tillage 9864 17527 29225 31155 32205 Strip tillage 72 106 108 225 300 Zero tillage 79 59 97 105 110 Bed planting system 4337 4636 5745 5950 6350 Total 14352 22328 35175 37435 38965 Table 2. Area under conservation agriculture tillage system in Bangladesh 29 . The 4th Regional Forum on Sustainable Agricultural Mechanization in Asia and ...MINIMUM TILLAGE: Minimum tillage is aimed at reducing tillage to the minimum necessary for ensuring a good seed bed, rapid germination, satisfactory stand and favourable growing conditions. Tillage can be reduced in two ways. 1. By omitting operations which do not give any benefit when compared to the cost. 2.a. Minimum Tillage -Minimum soil manipulation necessary to meet tillage requirements c. Mulch Tillage – Tillage operations in which nearly 30 % of crop residue or other mulching materials are left on or near the soil surface is called mulch tillage. Mulch tillage d. Rotary Tillage for crop production is called minimum tillage. b. Tillage Requirements under Different Agro-climatic Conditions Optimum tillage to achieve maximum crop yields with minimum energy consumption should be the aim of seedbed preparation. A good seedbed is generally considered to imply finer particles and greater firmness in the vicinity of seeds. The depth up to which tillageConservation Tillage. Conservation-tillage farming: method of soil cultivation that leaves the previous year's crop residue on fields before & after planting the next crop. No-till: involve planting crops directly into residue that either hasn't been tilled at all . Minimum tillage: some residue has been removed, but at least 30 to 70% remains •Minimum tillage (power tiller operated seed drill): for wheat, rice, lentil, mung bean etc. •Zero-tillage (4 wheel tractor operated zero till machine): for wheat, rice, maize, rajma, lentil, mung gram, and peas etc •Reduced tillage (Animal- drawn harrows, 4 WT harrows): for wheat •Surface seeding / Relay seeding: for wheat, mung bean andTypes of Tillage: Apart from these major primary and secondary tillage operations we often do tillage in some other ways. These different types of tillage are discussed as follows: (i) Minimum Tillage: Minimum soil manipulation necessary to meet tillage requirements for crop production. The major objectives are: Jul 25, 2014 · Mulch-Till Mulch-till is any other reduced tillage system that leaves at least one third of the soil surface covered with crop residue. Conventional Tillage Leaves less than 15% crop residue cover by completely inverting the top 12” of soil. Includes moldboard plowing, 2-3 secondary tillage steps and one or more primary tillage steps. MINIMUM-TILLAGE AGRICULTURE IS AMONG THE TOP OPTIONS TO REDUCE TILLAGE COSTS, CONSERVE SOIL AND WATER, INCREASE SOIL ORGANIC CARBON POOLS, AND REDUCE NET CO 2 EMISSIONS SOIL THREATS Soil compaction LAC Latin America and the Caribbean NA North America SSA sub-Saharan Africa NENA Near East and North Africa E Europe and Eurasia SPReduced tillage is designated as full-width tillage that disturbs the entire soil surface, leaving 15% to 30% of residue cover after planting. Other conservation tillage practices in the inland PNW include minimum tillage, delayed minimum tillage, undercutter fallow, chisel, discs, and sweep tillage systems. The CA technologies involving no- or minimum-tillage with direct seeding and bed planting, residue management and crop diversification have potential for improving productivity and soil quality, mainly by soil organic matter build-up. Conservation agriculture systems appear to be appealing options to achieve sustainable and intensive crop ...Tillage PowerPoint PPT Presentations ... Nutrient Management in Reduced Tillage Systems - Discuss how minimum tillage (MT), no-tillage (NT), and conventional tillage ... a result of intensive tillage. The surface has sealed and crusted, and the loosened topsoil above the hard pan caused by tillage has been eroded. What is soil degradation? Soil degradation has two major components: the loss of soil through erosion and the loss of soil fertility. Both components lead to progressively lower crop yields,Conventional or clean tillage - Conventional seedbeds are prepared in two phases, first with plows (Figure 3), disks (Figures 4 and 5), chisels (Figure 10), or sweeps (Figure 11), commonly referred to as primary tillage. After the primary tillage is completed, final seedbed preparation is performed to smooth and firm the seedbed. Roller ...Conventional-tillage. All topsoil is turned under and exposed. to erosion and the elements. Conservation tillage. Minimum or no-till -either loosely break. the surface or use special planting equipment. to put seeds into earth without exposing. topsoil. Refer to Fig. 10-26 p. 224Conservation tillage, or minimum tillage, is a broadly defined practice that includes no-till, strip till, ridge till, and mulch till systems. These techniques maintain plant residues on at least 30% of the soil surface after tillage activities. When compared to conventional practices, minimum tillage systems can reduce tillage passes by 40% or ... A minimum tillage planter for use in unplowed fields, comprising: whereby fertilizer and seed is placed along each furrow at differing elevations without disturbing the strips of untilled soil to each side of the furrows. 3. A planter as set out is claim 2 wherein each roller comprises: Deep reduced tillage. Deep tillage with a cultivator is often used on light soils that require loosening: before compaction-sensitive crops such as oilseeds, peas and sugar beet. A combination cultivator such as TopDown can be used for one or two passes or alternatively a rigid tine cultivator such as Cultus, often in combination with a disc ... Producers must consider the advantage and disadvantages of a tillage system before changing systems. The most important advantage of conservation tillage systems is significantly less soil erosion due to wind and water. Other advantages include reduced fuel and labor requirements. However, increased reliance may be placed on herbicides with some conservation tillageS&P machine Furrow opening component:- Furrow openers in seed cum fertilizer drills are provided to facilitate the placement of seed and fertilizers at a proper depth and spacing in case of conventional and conservation or minimum tillage/ zero tillage seed cum fertilizer drills Furrow openers are of two types as rotating types and fixed types ...Test erosion of new crops in no tillage, minimum tillage and conventional tillage. Example 1 ~ #4 p79 As much land as needed. Cultivators set to 20 feet. Tradition drill at 10 feet and no tillage drill at 15 feet. ... PowerPoint Presentation Author: Jack Brown Last modified by: Jack Brown Created Date: 2/7/2000 5:13:54 PM Document presentation ...In future RCM derived climate data minimum temperature rises from 2.13 oC to 5.17 0C and the increase in maximum temperature was 1.60C to 3.60C compare to baseline. ... filter strip 3 & 6m, porous gully plugs, zero tillage and conservation tillage operation) as compared to baseline period, found to be slightly decreasing in 2040s, increasing in ...Conservation tillage, or minimum tillage, is a broadly defined practice that includes no-till, strip till, ridge till, and mulch till systems. These techniques maintain plant residues on at least 30% of the soil surface after tillage activities. When compared to conventional practices, minimum tillage systems can reduce tillage passes by 40% or ... The grain weight per ear has been obtained in the conventional tillage system and the rotary tillage system were 2.99g & 2.73g whi topsoil and prepa one pass Correspondence ... practiced throughout the world such as no tillage, minimum tillage, conservation tillage and conventional tillage. In India, conventionally tillers and disc harrows are ...Minimum tillage Residue retention Conservation agriculture 12.5 22 13 37.75 0.1 Kenya Maize-legume intercropping Maize/legume rotation Minimum tillage Residue retention Conservation agriculture 72.400000000000006 25.7 21 47.8 3.7 Malawi Maize-legume intercropping Maize/legume rotation Minimum tillage Residue retention Conservation agriculture ... tillage practices . which include tillage and no-tillage. The phase of no-tillage can be 1, 2, or 3 consecutive years which are followed by a year in which tillage is conducted,… e.g. ST-NT-NT-NT (ST=Shallow Tillage; NT=No-Till). (2) Strategic tillage . involves the application of a one-off tillage in a NT field as to solve a specific problem) tillage, minimum (T 2) and traditional tillage (T 3) practices gives a substantial amount of yield with minimum water application which is a very resourceful finding for maize cultivation. The amount of yield changes from 7.133 ton/ha for I 1, 8.19 ton/ha for I 2 and 8.31 ton/ha for I 3 has been found from the field experiment.Conservation Tillage. Conservation-tillage farming: method of soil cultivation that leaves the previous year's crop residue on fields before & after planting the next crop. No-till: involve planting crops directly into residue that either hasn't been tilled at all . Minimum tillage: some residue has been removed, but at least 30 to 70% remains Minimum tillage: some residue has been removed, but at least 30 to 70% remains No Till & Minimum Tillage Planting into corn residue (no till) Soybeans grown in striped rows between corn residue (minimum tillage) Benefits of Conservation Tillage Environmental benefits Reduces soil erosion by 60%-90% from rain & windTillage tools such as chisels, field cultivators, disks, sweeps or blades are used. Weed control is accomplished with herbicides and/or cultivation. Mulch-till is a category that includes all conservation tillage practices other than no-till and ridge-till. Two tillage practices that fall into this category are zone-till and strip-till. Making use of minimum tillage expenditures Making use of Family/or mutually shared labour as and when required, for different cultural operations ... PowerPoint Presentation Author: SAS Center Last modified by: takatsuki Created Date: 7/30/2001 2:35:00 AM Document presentation format:The conventional tillage winter wheat-summer fallow is the predominant cropping system at Akron Plots in the Central Great Plains. Stubble-mulch (ST), reduced tillage, and NT were initiated in 1967, with SOC measured at various soil depths in 1982, 1989, and 2005 (Halvorson et al., 1997; Mikha et al., 2010 ).In some cases, several machinery sets gave nearly identical minimum costs. In approximately 80 percent of the cases tested, the least-cost machinery sets were able to complete all tillage and planting operations in about 20 to 25 field days. A good rule of thumb for farmers who wish to have sufficient machinery capacity to reduce risk, as well ...Minimum tillage or direct seeding without any plowing as well as mechanization of harvesting in fruit trees or grapes can also change the spectrum of diseases for which the growers need to find control measures. Such changes in crop varieties and in production methods keep the disease picture very dynamic so that new methods for disease control ...Types of Tillage: Apart from these major primary and secondary tillage operations we often do tillage in some other ways. These different types of tillage are discussed as follows: (i) Minimum Tillage: Minimum soil manipulation necessary to meet tillage requirements for crop production. The major objectives are: Tillage is the agricultural preparation of soil by mechanical agitation of ... (PPT--available as non-PPT by searching the path through a ... R.L., H.F. McColly, L.S. Robertson, and C.M. Hansen. 1958. Save Money - Water - Soil with Minimum Tillage. Extension Bulletin 352. Cooperative Extension Service, Michigan State University, East Lansing. ...Summary If Users have a basic understanding of the EXCEL spreadsheet, they can use this model. State Agronomist should become familiar with the wind data (climate file), crop data, and operation (tillage) files before beginning use in a new state. Limitations We can not change tillage direction in each mgt period.Modern CAPS, such as minimum tillage, continuous cover cropping, and legume intercropping can minimize soil loss while increasing soil nutrients and moisture. However, long-term adoption of these practices depends on the economic net benefit they offer to local farmers. Therefore, it is necessary to evaluate the potential profitability of each ...Conservation tillage, or minimum tillage, is a broadly defined practice that includes no-till, strip till, ridge till, and mulch till systems. These techniques maintain plant residues on at least 30% of the soil surface after tillage activities. When compared to conventional practices, minimum tillage systems can reduce tillage passes by 40% or ... various categories of use of minimum tillage 25 Figure 4. Group means for frequency of use of sources of information by growers in various categories of use of minimum tillage 29 Figure 5. Bar graph of group means for age in various categories of use of minimum tillage by growers in the Willamette Valley and in the Columbia Basin. 41 Figure 6. Oct 09, 2021 · The GM said preparing land for cultivation by minimum tillage using a chisel plough, or even better, a deep subsoiler, helps to preserve moisture in the soil and allows for an economical one pass ... This paper presents the situation of conservation tillage (CT) in Shandong province, analyses the various techniques including straw mulching, no-tillage seeding, raking tillage on the stubble, rotary tillage on the stubble, deep loosening, and control of weeds and insect pests. The paper also presents the ecological and social benefits of CT.This paper presents the situation of conservation tillage (CT) in Shandong province, analyses the various techniques including straw mulching, no-tillage seeding, raking tillage on the stubble, rotary tillage on the stubble, deep loosening, and control of weeds and insect pests. The paper also presents the ecological and social benefits of CT.Soil bulk density was 32% lower for the native prairie site (TP) compared to the sites with a history of tillage (RC, PF-NP, CRP; Table 2). ... minimum tillage. corn (2004). Table 3. Microbial enzyme activities and DNA content for the sites. Dehydro- Glucos- Soil Study Site genase aminidase Glucosidase Phosphatase DNA mg tpf g-1 ----- mg r ...) tillage, minimum (T 2) and traditional tillage (T 3) practices gives a substantial amount of yield with minimum water application which is a very resourceful finding for maize cultivation. The amount of yield changes from 7.133 ton/ha for I 1, 8.19 ton/ha for I 2 and 8.31 ton/ha for I 3 has been found from the field experiment.Minimum tillage refers to any method that reduces the number of conventional operations involved in growing corn. Most of these "short cuts" center around seedbed preparations, but some also influ­ ence the number of required cul­ tivations later in the growing season. Minimum tillage methods can be grouped four systems: 1. Minimum tillage refers to any method that reduces the number of conventional operations involved in growing corn. Most of these "short cuts" center around seedbed preparations, but some also influ­ ence the number of required cul­ tivations later in the growing season. Minimum tillage methods can be grouped four systems: 1. MINIMUM-TILLAGE AGRICULTURE IS AMONG THE TOP OPTIONS TO REDUCE TILLAGE COSTS, CONSERVE SOIL AND WATER, INCREASE SOIL ORGANIC CARBON POOLS, AND REDUCE NET CO 2 EMISSIONS SOIL THREATS Soil compaction LAC Latin America and the Caribbean NA North America SSA sub-Saharan Africa NENA Near East and North Africa E Europe and Eurasia SP1.d Minimum Number of Tillage Passes The number of tillage passes affects the amount of soil loss due to erosion. Each pass breaks down soil aggregates and buries crop residue, increasing the soils susceptibility to erosion. Tillage should be kept to the minimum required for seedbed preparation.Conservation tillage (minimum tillage) should be followed to the extent possible. This will reduce the decay of residues. Keeping the land fallow to encourage natural vegetation is also advisable. ***** Created Date: 3/27/2013 10:07:57 PM ...Tillage, as a soil management concept was questioned for the first time in the 1930s, when the dustbowls devastated wide areas of the mid-west United States [31]. Ideas for reducing tillage and keeping soil covered with crop biomass followed and the term conservation tillage was introduced for practices aimed at erosion control. SeedingS&P machine Furrow opening component:- Furrow openers in seed cum fertilizer drills are provided to facilitate the placement of seed and fertilizers at a proper depth and spacing in case of conventional and conservation or minimum tillage/ zero tillage seed cum fertilizer drills Furrow openers are of two types as rotating types and fixed types ...S&P machine Furrow opening component:- Furrow openers in seed cum fertilizer drills are provided to facilitate the placement of seed and fertilizers at a proper depth and spacing in case of conventional and conservation or minimum tillage/ zero tillage seed cum fertilizer drills Furrow openers are of two types as rotating types and fixed types ...FMP 211 :: Lecture 07 :: SECONDARY TILLAGE EQUIPMENT - HARROWS, LAND FORMING EQUIPMENT - ROTAVATORS - WET LAND EQUIPMENT - PUDDLERS AND MANURE TRAMPLERS - CAGE WHEELS. Tillage operations performed after primary tillage to create proper soil tilth for seeding and planting are called secondary tillage. These operations are lighter and ...The CA technologies involving no- or minimum-tillage with direct seeding and bed planting, residue management and crop diversification have potential for improving productivity and soil quality, mainly by soil organic matter build-up. Conservation agriculture systems appear to be appealing options to achieve sustainable and intensive crop ...The Rural Agricultural Development Authority (RADA) is a statutory body under the Ministry of Agriculture & Lands. RADA was established under the Rural Agricultural Development Authority Act of 1990, replacing the Land Authorities Act and began its operation on August 1, 1990. It is Jamaica's chief agricultural extension and rural development ...Weed species richness and diversity in the three traditional tillage systems Weed species richness. Analysis of variance of the weed species richness recorded under the three traditional tillage practices, were significantly different (p < 0.05) with the highest weed species richness in NT system (4.1 species m −2).Whereas RT (3.5 species m −2) system showed intermediate, ST system (2.7 ...Farmers use minimum tillage to mitigate the effect of termites and soil acidity in the study areas. The use of minimum tillage is higher at SNNP (44%) than in the Oromia (24%) region with an overall mean of 36%. There is a significant difference between regions in the adoption of minimum tillage (Chi 2 = 53.50; P value = 0.000). Farmers in SNNP ...Conservation tillage (minimum tillage) should be followed to the extent possible. This will reduce the decay of residues. Keeping the land fallow to encourage natural vegetation is also advisable. ***** Created Date: 3/27/2013 10:07:57 PM ...May 27, 2013 · 1. Modern Concepts of Zero Tillage. 2. Contents. 3. What is Zero Tillage • Placement of seed in to soil without soil preparation • It is an extreme form of minimum tillage. Primary tillage is completely avoided & secondary tillage is restricted to seedbed preparation in the row zone only • it is the direct sowing of seed in the field ... TILLAGE MANAGEMENT Tillage management is an essential SICS which can prevent and help remediate flooding through preventing compaction and by building organic matter which is useful for increasing infiltration. CONSERVATION TILLAGE This can include no-tillage, reduced-tillage, ridge- furrow systems, hillocks and mulch tillage. StudiesConventional or clean tillage - Conventional seedbeds are prepared in two phases, first with plows (Figure 3), disks (Figures 4 and 5), chisels (Figure 10), or sweeps (Figure 11), commonly referred to as primary tillage. After the primary tillage is completed, final seedbed preparation is performed to smooth and firm the seedbed. Roller ...(Visit: http://www.uctv.tv/) Farmers can't control the costs of seed, fertilizers, chemicals, water or the price they can get for their crops - but they can ...Minimum tillage, no-tillage and ridge-tillage tend to reduce the loss of earthworm biomass living on the soil surface, in part because these less invasive soil mixing practices incorporate dead mulch and/or crop residues 10-15 cm below the surface of the topsoil, or allow it to stay on the soil surface, much like the litter found in woodlands ...Precision Farming is a farm management concept that revolves around the process of observing, measuring, and responding to various inter-and intra-field variability inputs for modern agriculture. Popular definitions of Precision Agriculture (PA), Satellite Farming, or Site-Specific Crop Management (SSCM) describe the term as 'a technology ...Tillage tools such as chisels, field cultivators, disks, sweeps or blades are used. Weed control is accomplished with herbicides and/or cultivation. Mulch-till is a category that includes all conservation tillage practices other than no-till and ridge-till. Two tillage practices that fall into this category are zone-till and strip-till. Minimum tillage or direct seeding without any plowing as well as mechanization of harvesting in fruit trees or grapes can also change the spectrum of diseases for which the growers need to find control measures. Such changes in crop varieties and in production methods keep the disease picture very dynamic so that new methods for disease control ...Aug 01, 2014 · Soil Cultivation and Tillage. What is Tillage?. The practice of keeping the soil mellow (soft) and free from weeds mechanically (physically). Can be seedbed preparation or post emergence cultivation. What are the purposes of tillage?. 1) Develop soil tilth (physical condition of the soil) Making use of minimum tillage expenditures Making use of Family/or mutually shared labour as and when required, for different cultural operations ... PowerPoint Presentation Author: SAS Center Last modified by: takatsuki Created Date: 7/30/2001 2:35:00 AM Document presentation format:Minimum soil disturbance Zero tillage is ideal, but the system may involve controlled tillage in which no more than 20 to 25% of the soil surface is disturbed. 2. Retention of crop residues or other soil surface cover Many definitions of CA use 30% permanent organic soil cover as the minimum, but the ideal level of soil cover is site-specific. 3.The soil conservation technique of minimum tillage vs. conventional plowing affects soil moisture by reducing cracking and evaporation as well as rising the infiltration rate. Aids air and water purification. The importance of soil conservation relates to water supplies, and the earth functions as a natural filter to purify water.Deep reduced tillage. Deep tillage with a cultivator is often used on light soils that require loosening: before compaction-sensitive crops such as oilseeds, peas and sugar beet. A combination cultivator such as TopDown can be used for one or two passes or alternatively a rigid tine cultivator such as Cultus, often in combination with a disc ... Jul 25, 2014 · Mulch-Till Mulch-till is any other reduced tillage system that leaves at least one third of the soil surface covered with crop residue. Conventional Tillage Leaves less than 15% crop residue cover by completely inverting the top 12” of soil. Includes moldboard plowing, 2-3 secondary tillage steps and one or more primary tillage steps. Minimum soil disturbance Zero tillage is ideal, but the system may involve controlled tillage in which no more than 20 to 25% of the soil surface is disturbed. 2. Retention of crop residues or other soil surface cover Many definitions of CA use 30% permanent organic soil cover as the minimum, but the ideal level of soil cover is site-specific. 3.Soil bulk density was 32% lower for the native prairie site (TP) compared to the sites with a history of tillage (RC, PF-NP, CRP; Table 2). ... minimum tillage. corn (2004). Table 3. Microbial enzyme activities and DNA content for the sites. Dehydro- Glucos- Soil Study Site genase aminidase Glucosidase Phosphatase DNA mg tpf g-1 ----- mg r ...Conservation agriculture production techniques, e.g., crop residues returning to field, minimum tillage and no-tillage. Piloting of alternative crop rotation production systems. Promotion of agroforestry. Integrated soil nutrient management as part of integrated CSA projects. Recently launched: China - Climate Smart Staple Crop Production ProjectZero Tillage and Organic Farming in Saskatchewan. PhD thesis, University of Saskatchewan. • Beckie, M. & Bacon, E. (2019). Catalyzing change in local food system governance in Calgary, Alberta: The role of YYC Growers and Distributors Cooperative.Jul 15, 2014 · Presentation Transcript. Land Management. Competing uses for land: • Forests (30% and decreasing) • Agriculture (40% and increasing) • Urbanization (5% and increasing) Forest Uses • Wood to build structures • Wood for heat energy. Agriculture Uses Definition - the growing of crops & the tending of livestock for subsistence, sale, or ... Types of Tillage: Apart from these major primary and secondary tillage operations we often do tillage in some other ways. These different types of tillage are discussed as follows: (i) Minimum Tillage: Minimum soil manipulation necessary to meet tillage requirements for crop production. The major objectives are:Tillage PowerPoint PPT Presentations ... Nutrient Management in Reduced Tillage Systems - Discuss how minimum tillage (MT), no-tillage (NT), and conventional tillage ... The grain weight per ear has been obtained in the conventional tillage system and the rotary tillage system were 2.99g & 2.73g whi topsoil and prepa one pass Correspondence ... practiced throughout the world such as no tillage, minimum tillage, conservation tillage and conventional tillage. In India, conventionally tillers and disc harrows are ...Tillage induced flush of decomposition of organic matter. Type of Tillage. Organic matter lost in 19 days (kg/ha) Mouldboard plough + disc harrow (2x) 4 300. Mouldboard plough. 2 230. Disc harrow ... Types of Tillage: Apart from these major primary and secondary tillage operations we often do tillage in some other ways. These different types of tillage are discussed as follows: (i) Minimum Tillage: Minimum soil manipulation necessary to meet tillage requirements for crop production. The major objectives are: Oct 09, 2021 · The GM said preparing land for cultivation by minimum tillage using a chisel plough, or even better, a deep subsoiler, helps to preserve moisture in the soil and allows for an economical one pass ... Types of Tillage Minimum Tillage - It is the minimum soil manipulation necessary to meet tillage requirements for crop production. Strip Tillage - It is a tillage system in which only isolated bands of soil are tilled. Rotary Tillage -It is the tillage operations employing rotary action to cut, break and mix the soil.Minimum tillage Residue retention Conservation agriculture 12.5 22 13 37.75 0.1 Kenya Maize-legume intercropping Maize/legume rotation Minimum tillage Residue retention Conservation agriculture 72.400000000000006 25.7 21 47.8 3.7 Malawi Maize-legume intercropping Maize/legume rotation Minimum tillage Residue retention Conservation agriculture ... ) tillage, minimum (T 2) and traditional tillage (T 3) practices gives a substantial amount of yield with minimum water application which is a very resourceful finding for maize cultivation. The amount of yield changes from 7.133 ton/ha for I 1, 8.19 ton/ha for I 2 and 8.31 ton/ha for I 3 has been found from the field experiment.Jul 04, 2012 · Effects of minimum tillage: Soil Temperature Lowers soil temperature, depending on amount of residue + + for South US, tropics - - for north (soil warming may be delayed in spring) 33. Effects of minimum tillage: Soil Fertility + + increased organic matter, reduced erosion - - N availability can be affected by residues and lead to deficiency: 34. What Is Minimum Tillage? MINIMUN TILLAGE QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS By Delbert E. Lane Extension Agricultural Engineer E.c. 64-735 Minimum tillage is simplified tillage that reduces or combines field oper­ ations. What Are the Costs Per Acre of Minimum Tillage? Costs may range from 5 to 15 dollars per acre less than for the usual methods May 27, 2013 · 1. Modern Concepts of Zero Tillage. 2. Contents. 3. What is Zero Tillage • Placement of seed in to soil without soil preparation • It is an extreme form of minimum tillage. Primary tillage is completely avoided & secondary tillage is restricted to seedbed preparation in the row zone only • it is the direct sowing of seed in the field ... Minimum tillage 9864 17527 29225 31155 32205 Strip tillage 72 106 108 225 300 Zero tillage 79 59 97 105 110 Bed planting system 4337 4636 5745 5950 6350 Total 14352 22328 35175 37435 38965 Table 2. Area under conservation agriculture tillage system in Bangladesh 29 . The 4th Regional Forum on Sustainable Agricultural Mechanization in Asia and ...Reduced tillage is designated as full-width tillage that disturbs the entire soil surface, leaving 15% to 30% of residue cover after planting. Other conservation tillage practices in the inland PNW include minimum tillage, delayed minimum tillage, undercutter fallow, chisel, discs, and sweep tillage systems. May 27, 2013 · 1. Modern Concepts of Zero Tillage. 2. Contents. 3. What is Zero Tillage • Placement of seed in to soil without soil preparation • It is an extreme form of minimum tillage. Primary tillage is completely avoided & secondary tillage is restricted to seedbed preparation in the row zone only • it is the direct sowing of seed in the field ... Minimum tillage, no-tillage and ridge-tillage tend to reduce the loss of earthworm biomass living on the soil surface, in part because these less invasive soil mixing practices incorporate dead mulch and/or crop residues 10-15 cm below the surface of the topsoil, or allow it to stay on the soil surface, much like the litter found in woodlands ...Secondary tillage using a rotovator (left), harrowing operation (right) Puddling is the working of the soil in a totally flooded state to realign soil particles in a manner that will reduce the water penetration and leave the surface level for crop establishment. It is normally done using tractors and rotovators or animals and peg tooth harrows ...Oct 09, 2021 · The GM said preparing land for cultivation by minimum tillage using a chisel plough, or even better, a deep subsoiler, helps to preserve moisture in the soil and allows for an economical one pass ... What are the benefits of minimum tillage? 1) soil surface is left covered residue (conserve moisture) 2) redidue protects soil from erosion 3) reduced costs (fewer operations) 4) soil tilth improved (less compaction) -Weeds are controlled with chemicals 26 What is stripcropping? alternating summerfallow and cropped fields 27Our new CrystalGraphics Chart and Diagram Slides for PowerPoint is a collection of over 1000 impressively designed data-driven chart and editable diagram s guaranteed to impress any audience. They are all artistically enhanced with visually stunning color, shadow and lighting effects. Many of them are also animated. a. Minimum Tillage -Minimum soil manipulation necessary to meet tillage requirements c. Mulch Tillage – Tillage operations in which nearly 30 % of crop residue or other mulching materials are left on or near the soil surface is called mulch tillage. Mulch tillage d. Rotary Tillage for crop production is called minimum tillage. b. Tillage, as a soil management concept was questioned for the first time in the 1930s, when the dustbowls devastated wide areas of the mid-west United States [31]. Ideas for reducing tillage and keeping soil covered with crop biomass followed and the term conservation tillage was introduced for practices aimed at erosion control. SeedingExperience has shown that the use of minimum tillage is generally more reliable than direct drilling mainly because it allows for better broad-leaved weed control and clearing the surface of straw and wheel ruts. Most of the emphasis of this note is thus on minimum tillage. Minimum tillage can be used either as the main system on a farm or on an No-tillage or no-till, also referred to as zero tillage, is a soil cultivation system in which seeds are deposited directly into untilled soil. It is defi ned "as a system of planting (seeding) crops into untilled soil by opening a narrow slot trench or band only of suffi cient width and depth to obtain proper seed coverage. No other soil till-Minimum soil disturbance Zero tillage is ideal, but the system may involve controlled tillage in which no more than 20 to 25% of the soil surface is disturbed. 2. Retention of crop residues or other soil surface cover Many definitions of CA use 30% permanent organic soil cover as the minimum, but the ideal level of soil cover is site-specific. 3.Aug 01, 2014 · Soil Cultivation and Tillage. What is Tillage?. The practice of keeping the soil mellow (soft) and free from weeds mechanically (physically). Can be seedbed preparation or post emergence cultivation. What are the purposes of tillage?. 1) Develop soil tilth (physical condition of the soil) Producers must consider the advantage and disadvantages of a tillage system before changing systems. The most important advantage of conservation tillage systems is significantly less soil erosion due to wind and water. Other advantages include reduced fuel and labor requirements. However, increased reliance may be placed on herbicides with some conservation tillageJul 15, 2018 · 8. A deep tillage of 25- 30 cm depth is necessary for deep rooted crop like pigeon pea, moderate tillage of 15- 20 cm is required for maize. Deep tillage also improves soil moisture content. However, the advantage of deep tillage in dry farming condition depends on rainfall pattern and crop. Soil bulk density was 32% lower for the native prairie site (TP) compared to the sites with a history of tillage (RC, PF-NP, CRP; Table 2). ... minimum tillage. corn (2004). Table 3. Microbial enzyme activities and DNA content for the sites. Dehydro- Glucos- Soil Study Site genase aminidase Glucosidase Phosphatase DNA mg tpf g-1 ----- mg r ...Aug 01, 2014 · Soil Cultivation and Tillage. What is Tillage?. The practice of keeping the soil mellow (soft) and free from weeds mechanically (physically). Can be seedbed preparation or post emergence cultivation. What are the purposes of tillage?. 1) Develop soil tilth (physical condition of the soil) Malting barley variety development. Grain to Glass 11 - 13 years. 2-3. 3-4. 3. 3. Time frame (yrs) Activity. Breeding and selection; initial agronomic assessmentdensity to tillage in fallow systems may be att ributable to amount of time and precip-itation between tillage and sampling, type of tillage (disk vs. sweep vs. plow), depth of tillage, and soil type (Mikha et al., 2006). Results also vary with sampling depth. Gen-erally, tillage will decrease bulk density in the tilled soil layer.Tillage induced flush of decomposition of organic matter. Type of Tillage. Organic matter lost in 19 days (kg/ha) Mouldboard plough + disc harrow (2x) 4 300. Mouldboard plough. 2 230. Disc harrow ... Tillage PowerPoint PPT Presentations ... Nutrient Management in Reduced Tillage Systems - Discuss how minimum tillage (MT), no-tillage (NT), and conventional tillage ... Conservation tillage. Conservation tillage refers to various practices that provide better protection for the soil. These practices include stubble mulching (maintenance of residue cover with mechanical weed control), minimum tillage (using a mixture of herbicide and mechanical weed control) and zero-tillage (soil disturbance occurs only at ... Minimum tillage 9864 17527 29225 31155 32205 Strip tillage 72 106 108 225 300 Zero tillage 79 59 97 105 110 Bed planting system 4337 4636 5745 5950 6350 Total 14352 22328 35175 37435 38965 Table 2. Area under conservation agriculture tillage system in Bangladesh 29 . The 4th Regional Forum on Sustainable Agricultural Mechanization in Asia and ...They play an important role in Agriculture. The major secondary tillage implements are listed below: Harrows. They are further divided into 2 types. i) Disc Harrow. ii) Toothed Harrow. Disc Harrow is sub divided into a) Trailing Type b) Mounted Type. Pulverizers. Cultivators.Our new CrystalGraphics Chart and Diagram Slides for PowerPoint is a collection of over 1000 impressively designed data-driven chart and editable diagram s guaranteed to impress any audience. They are all artistically enhanced with visually stunning color, shadow and lighting effects. Many of them are also animated. Summary If Users have a basic understanding of the EXCEL spreadsheet, they can use this model. State Agronomist should become familiar with the wind data (climate file), crop data, and operation (tillage) files before beginning use in a new state. Limitations We can not change tillage direction in each mgt period.Conservation agriculture production techniques, e.g., crop residues returning to field, minimum tillage and no-tillage. Piloting of alternative crop rotation production systems. Promotion of agroforestry. Integrated soil nutrient management as part of integrated CSA projects. Recently launched: China - Climate Smart Staple Crop Production ProjectTillage is the agricultural preparation of soil by mechanical agitation of various types, such as digging, stirring, and overturning. Examples of human-powered tilling methods using hand tools include shoveling, picking, mattock work, hoeing, and raking.Examples of draft-animal-powered or mechanized work include ploughing (overturning with moldboards or chiseling with chisel shanks ...Conservation tillage, or minimum tillage, is a broadly defined practice that includes no-till, strip till, ridge till, and mulch till systems. These techniques maintain plant residues on at least 30% of the soil surface after tillage activities. When compared to conventional practices, minimum tillage systems can reduce tillage passes by 40% or ... The soil conservation technique of minimum tillage vs. conventional plowing affects soil moisture by reducing cracking and evaporation as well as rising the infiltration rate. Aids air and water purification. The importance of soil conservation relates to water supplies, and the earth functions as a natural filter to purify water.Aug 01, 2014 · Soil Cultivation and Tillage. What is Tillage?. The practice of keeping the soil mellow (soft) and free from weeds mechanically (physically). Can be seedbed preparation or post emergence cultivation. What are the purposes of tillage?. 1) Develop soil tilth (physical condition of the soil) They play an important role in Agriculture. The major secondary tillage implements are listed below: Harrows. They are further divided into 2 types. i) Disc Harrow. ii) Toothed Harrow. Disc Harrow is sub divided into a) Trailing Type b) Mounted Type. Pulverizers. Cultivators.minimum-tillage approaches that are used by farmers in this region are variants of the permanent-bed systems that have been described above. Growers maintain beds for a few months to a few years. Minimum tillage may be used solely between summer vegetable crops as a way to quickly transition from harvesting one crop to seeding the second crop. Minimum tillage and reasons for the secure. The following relevant questions and their answers in this topic will greatly help and motivate the user to comprehend and understand the required concepts and farming practices: 1. Give three factors that determine depth of ploughing during land preparation 2.This paper presents the situation of conservation tillage (CT) in Shandong province, analyses the various techniques including straw mulching, no-tillage seeding, raking tillage on the stubble, rotary tillage on the stubble, deep loosening, and control of weeds and insect pests. The paper also presents the ecological and social benefits of CT.Tillage PowerPoint PPT Presentations ... Nutrient Management in Reduced Tillage Systems - Discuss how minimum tillage (MT), no-tillage (NT), and conventional tillage ... ) tillage, minimum (T 2) and traditional tillage (T 3) practices gives a substantial amount of yield with minimum water application which is a very resourceful finding for maize cultivation. The amount of yield changes from 7.133 ton/ha for I 1, 8.19 ton/ha for I 2 and 8.31 ton/ha for I 3 has been found from the field experiment.Tillage is the agricultural preparation of soil by mechanical agitation of ... (PPT--available as non-PPT by searching the path through a ... R.L., H.F. McColly, L.S. Robertson, and C.M. Hansen. 1958. Save Money - Water - Soil with Minimum Tillage. Extension Bulletin 352. Cooperative Extension Service, Michigan State University, East Lansing. ...minimum tillage Mid Season - conventional tillage Final Ground preparation No. of days to completion 7 - 10 10 - 20 20 - 30 No. of tillage activities 5 - 8 9 - 17 11 - 19 Inorganic/organic amendments applied Conventional - No Organic - Yes Occasional YesConservation Tillage. Conservation-tillage farming: method of soil cultivation that leaves the previous year's crop residue on fields before & after planting the next crop. No-till: involve planting crops directly into residue that either hasn't been tilled at all . Minimum tillage: some residue has been removed, but at least 30 to 70% remains Minimum Tillage/Zero Tillage System Crops are grown from year to year with zero or minimum soil disturbance through tillage in this system. In Minimum tillage, soil disturbance is kept to minimum level. In Zero tillage or No-Till system, no soil disturbance is done season in season out. The Benefits This system comes with many advantages;The two minimum tillage systems retained over 52% surface cover from the spring wheat residue through pea seeding compared to 10% with conventional tillage. Minimum tillage pea yields were slightly higher than yields with conventional tillage, but the difference was not statistically significant. Erosion protection overwinter was much higher in ... In conventional no-till farming, farmers use herbicides to manage the weeds before and after sowing the seeds. The amount of herbicides used in this approach is even higher than the amount used in tillage-based farming, which causes a threat to the environment and human health. Organic no-till farming uses a variety of methods to manage weeds ...Experience has shown that the use of minimum tillage is generally more reliable than direct drilling mainly because it allows for better broad-leaved weed control and clearing the surface of straw and wheel ruts. Most of the emphasis of this note is thus on minimum tillage. Minimum tillage can be used either as the main system on a farm or on an Soil bulk density was 32% lower for the native prairie site (TP) compared to the sites with a history of tillage (RC, PF-NP, CRP; Table 2). ... minimum tillage. corn (2004). Table 3. Microbial enzyme activities and DNA content for the sites. Dehydro- Glucos- Soil Study Site genase aminidase Glucosidase Phosphatase DNA mg tpf g-1 ----- mg r ...Aug 01, 2014 · Soil Cultivation and Tillage. What is Tillage?. The practice of keeping the soil mellow (soft) and free from weeds mechanically (physically). Can be seedbed preparation or post emergence cultivation. What are the purposes of tillage?. 1) Develop soil tilth (physical condition of the soil) TILLAGE MANAGEMENT Tillage management is another essential SCS tool which can prevent and help remediate erosion through allowing soil organisms to be minimally disturbed and soil organic matter to build up. CONSERVATION TILLAGE This can include no-tillage, reduced-tillage, ridge- furrow systems, hillocks and mulch tillage. Studiesmakes (minimum tillage) 3) keep off soil when it is wet Compaction can be reversed by special deep tillage methods, Crusting can be reduced by: light cultivation adding gypsum (CaS04) mulches . ... PowerPoint Presentation Author: SCAS Created Date: 11/16/2004 3:43:50 PM ...Apr 05, 2017 · Zero tillage : A profitable resource saving technology in India 2 3. INTRODUCTION Zero tillage is also called as no till. Zero tillage is an extreme form of minimum tillage. Primary tillage is completely avoided and secondary tillage is restricted to seedbed preparation in the row zone only. In zero tillage, herbicide functions are extended. with minimum-tillage and cover crops. are blended to make three cereal products: a classic cold cereal, hot cereal. and on-the-go bar. By using both wheat and peas in relative proportion to their output volume, fanners have a market for both crops produced per harvest per hectare. USD sig 2,200 USO EASE FARMER PROFITA L.rry PER Loss "-CREASE FOODConservation tillage disturbs the field to a minimum necessary extent and leaves crop residue on soil surface. In this way, tillage practices reduce soil loss and conserve water. In most of the cases, conservation tillage practices reduce soil loss up to 50% over conventional tillage practice. Hardpans induce runoff, and at the same time ...minimum-tillage approaches that are used by farmers in this region are variants of the permanent-bed systems that have been described above. Growers maintain beds for a few months to a few years. Minimum tillage may be used solely between summer vegetable crops as a way to quickly transition from harvesting one crop to seeding the second crop. 10 day notice to vacate louisianadeadlock programmingused toyota highlander hybrid cheaplas vegas smoke shop stabbing reddit amahilti expansion anchors for concreteplex api pythoneggman dies fanfiction90s female actresseswhen will missouri star quilt company reopencan you issue a subpoena without a lawsuitbessacarr motorhome breakershookup ads description xo